Nonresponse and weighting


Every survey suffers from nonresponse. Nonresponse rates are often large and are thought to be often the largest source of survey error. As long as information for the entire population or sample is available, nonresponse error can to some degree be assessed and adjusted for.


Required readings

  • de Leeuw, E., Hox, J., & Luiten, A. (2018). International nonresponse trends across countries and years: an analysis of 36 years of Labour Force Survey data. Survey Methods: Insights from the Field, 1-11.
  • Kalton, G., & Flores-Cervantes, I. (2003). Weighting methods. Journal of official statistics, 19(2), 81.
  • Brick, J. M. (2013). Unit nonresponse and weighting adjustments: A critical review. Journal of Official Statistics, 29(3), 329-353.

Optional readings

  • Bethlehem, J. G., & Keller, W. J. (1987). Linear weighting of sample survey data. Journal of official Statistics, 3(2), 141-153.
  • Lynn (1996) Weighting for nonresponse. Survey and Statistical Computing 1996, edited by R. Banks




R exercise weighting
R exercise weighting solutions
data for R exercise

Take home exercise

Finish the class exercises.